The world witnessed economic growth and prosperity since the industrial revolution mainly due to increased e ciencies in the use of better and higher concentrations of energy in fossil fuels. The excessive usage has comparatively increased the consumption rate of fossil fuel over its production, resultantly impacting human life and modern technological society which currently is heavily dependent on oil as a fuel. The development of the renewable energy sources is imperative to avoid complete dependence on crude oil and many countries blessed with renewable energy natural resources are rapidly turning towards clean fuel
Pakistan is among such countries which is abundantly blessed by nature with renewable energy like wind and solar. Pakistan, being on the Sun Belt, is highly suitable for generation of electricity through solar. Global irradiation falling on the horizontal surface is about 1,800-2,200 kWh/m2 per year. At current e ciency levels of 18% for solar modules this is su cient to produce 0.320 to 0.400 MWh of electricity per m2 per year (Source: German National Meteorological Service – DWD). With huge availability of sunlight, Sindh holds a great potential for extensive exploitation of solar energy for not only agriculture but also for the extensive use of environmental-friendly alternative energy for households. Sindh according to the wind date gathered by the Pakistan Meteoro- logical Department (MET Department), the coastal belt of Sindh has huge potential for the development of wind energy projects. The ‘wind corridor’ of Sindh stretches from Keti Bandar to Gharo and is capable of producing 50,000 MW of electricity.
Wind power is the conversion of wind energy into a useful form of energy, such as using wind turbines to make electricity, wind mills for mechanical power, wind pumps for pumping water or drainage, or sails to propel ships. Wind energy corridor of Gharo with 60 km wide and 180 km long up to Hyderabad with average speed of 10 m/sec has huge potential to play a vital role in ensuring all-round development and growth of economy of a nation.
The escalating cost of diesel and electricity can be o set by setting wind pumps to run tube-well for extracting water from the ground for irrigation purposes.
Many international companies have already shown keen interest in establishing wind turbines to make electricity. A 5 MW windh power plant established by Zorlu energy Pakistan of has already started producing electricity.
Al-Tawarqi Steel of Saudi Arabia is also in process of establishing pilot wind power plant at its site at port Qasim. The growing demand of energy in the economy of the country and availability of adequate natural resource reflects investment opportunities for the investors.
Solar energy source is widely distributed and abundantly available in Pakistan. With average 5.5-6 KWh/m2/day andabout1,800-2,200 kWh/m2 per year radiation, Sindh has tremendous potential of harnessing this natural resource to produce 0.320 to 0.400 MWh of electric ity per m2 per year. With annual mean sunshine duration of 8 – 8.5 hours a day, it is estimated that this amount of energy is enough to electrify 40,000 villages.
The solar-powered tube-wells/pumping machines for extracting underground water and land reclamation can be used to install in a water-logged and salinity-hit area besides using it for irrigation and drinking water usages.
Due to huge availability of sunlight, Sindh holds a great investment potential for extensive exploitation of solar energy for not only agriculture but also for the extensive use of environmental-friendly alternative energy for households, o ces, hospitals, schools and mosques.